Sometimes the two terms were understood to be synonymous; sometimes sodomy was limited to sexual activities between two humans;  and sometimes sodomy was taken to include anal sex or bestiality, whereas crime against nature also included fellatio. The prevalence of smoking among those individuals 15 years of age and older dropped from 23 per cent in to 21 per cent in Sustainable transport Progress of goal 3 in Since , impressive advancements have been made on many health fronts. On the other hand, just 7 years prior, a similar challenge Perkins v. Liberalization of sexual morals led to reduction of penalties or decriminalization of the offense during the second half of the 20th century, so that, by , it was no longer a punishable offense in 36 out of 50 U. For women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa, however, the rate is much higher, at 2. Attempted or completed act of sodomy, committed by a husband against his wife, was grounds for divorce in common law. According to estimates from , around 38 million deaths per year, accounting for 68 per cent of all deaths worldwide, were attributable to non communicable diseases. These deaths were mainly caused by diarrhoeal diseases, but also from malnutrition and intestinal nematode infections. However, the adolescent birth rate remains high in two thirds of all countries, with more than 20 births per 1, adolescent girls in Nearly , suicides occurred worldwide in , with men about twice as likely to commit suicide as women. Over three quarters of premature deaths were caused by cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory disease. In , million cases of malaria were reported versus million cases in Hepatitis B can be prevented through vaccinations; global coverage of vaccinations for that disease among children 1 year of age increased from 29 per cent in to 84 per cent in State  failed in North Carolina. Crime against nature remained punishable by death or life imprisonment both in the UK and in many U. Over time, particularly starting in the early 20th century, some jurisdictions started enacting statutes or developing precedents the extended the scope of the crime to include fellatio and, sometimes, other sexual activities.